Ward K. Swallow, The Shy Child: Helping Children Triumph Over Shyness (New York: Time Warner, 2000).
1. Mark Twain once told a story: This comes from Donald Mackinnon, who believed (but was not 100 percent certain) that Mark Twain told this story. See Donald W. MacKinnon, "The Nature and Nurture of Creative Talent," (Walter Van d.y.k.e Bingham Lecture given at Yale University, New Haven, CT, April 11, 1962).
2. this cautionary tale ... by Dr. Jerry Miller: I conducted several in-person and e-mail interviews with Dr. Miller between 2006 and 2010.
3. Emily Miller: I conducted several interviews with Emily Miller between 2006 and 2010.
4. Elaine Aron: Elaine N. Aron, Psychotherapy and the Highly Sensitive Person (New York: Routledge, 2010), 1819.
5. Dr. Kenneth Rubin: Rubin, The Friendship Factor.
6. "very little is made available to that learner": Jill D. Burruss and Lisa Kaenzig, "Introversion: The Often Forgotten Factor Impacting the Gifted," Virginia a.s.sociation for the Gifted Newsletter 21, no. 1 (1999).
7. Experts believe that negative public speaking: Gregory Berns, Iconoclast: A Neuroscientist Reveals How to Think Differently (Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press, 2008), 77.
8. Extroverts tend to like movement: Isabel Myers et al., MBTI Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, 3rd ed., 2nd printing (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1998), 26162. See also Allen L. Hammer, ed., MBTI Applications: A Decade of Research on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1996).
9. prerequisite to talent development: See chapter 3, especially on the work of Anders Ericsson.
10. "they are usually very comfortable talking with one or two of their cla.s.smates": E-mail from Roger Johnson to the author, June 14, 2010.
11. Don't seat quiet kids in "high interaction" areas: James McCroskey, "Quiet Children in the Cla.s.sroom: On Helping Not Hurting," Communication Education 29 (1980).
12. being popular isn't necessary: Rubin, The Friendship Factor: "Research findings do not suggest that popularity is the golden route to all manner of good things. There simply is not much evidence that it guarantees social or academic success in adolescence, young adulthood, or later life.... If your child finds one other child to befriend, and the pair clearly have fun together and enjoy each other's company and are supportive companions, good for him. Stop worrying. Not every child needs to be part of a big, happy gang. Not every child needs many friends; for some, one or two will do."
13. intense engagement in and commitment to an activity: I. McGregor and Brian Little, "Personal Projects, Happiness, and Meaning: On Doing Well and Being Yourself," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74, no. 2 (1998): 494512.
14. the psychologist Dan McAdams: Jack J. Bauer, Dan P. McAdams, and Jennifer L. Pals, "Narrative Ident.i.ty and Eudaimonic Well-Being," Journal of Happiness Studies 9 (2008): 81104.
A NOTE ON THE WORDS INTROVERT AND EXTROVERT
1. the anthropologist C. A. Valentine: C. A. Valentine, "Men of Anger and Men of Shame: Lakalai Ethnopsychology and Its Implications for Sociological Theory," Ethnology no. 2 (1963): 44177. I first learned about this article from David Winter's excellent textbook, Personality: a.n.a.lysis and Interpretation of Lives (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996).
2. Aristotle: Aristoteles, Problematica Physica x.x.x, 1 (Bekker 953A 10 ff.), as translated in Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle, the Revised Oxford Translation II (Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen, 1984).
3. John Milton: Cited in David G. Winter, Personality: a.n.a.lysis and Interpretation of Lives (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996), 38084.
4. Schopenhauer: Arthur Schopenhauer, "Personality, or What a Man Is," in The Wisdom of Life and Other Essays (New York and London: Dunne, 1901), 1235 (original work published 1851); cited in Winter, Personality, 38486.
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